• OGC® Coverage Implementation Schema v1.1 (09-146r6)
  • Open Geospatial Consortium

    Submission Date: 2018-07-05

    Approval Date:   2018-09-05

    Publication Date:   2019-10-31

    External identifier of this OGC® document: http://www.opengis.net/doc/POL-NTS/Sensor/1.0

    Internal reference number of this OGC® document:    18-042r4

    Version: 1.0

    Category: OGC® Policy

    Editor:   Gobe Hobona, Simon Cox

    OGC Name Type Specification - Sensor Models and Parameters

    Copyright notice

    Copyright © 2019 Open Geospatial Consortium

    To obtain additional rights of use, visit http://www.opengeospatial.org/legal/

    Warning

    This document defines an OGC Policy. It is subject to change without notice. This document is an official position of the OGC membership on this particular topic.

    Recipients of this document are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are aware and to provide supporting documentation.

    Document type:    OGC® Policy

    Document subtype:    Name Type Spec

    Document stage:    Approved

    Document language:  English

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    i. Abstract

    A wide variety of sensors have historically been used to collect geospatial data. In order to enable systems to transform the data collected by the sensors into observations that can be processes and exploited, it is often necessary to understand the characteristics of the sensors. Unfortunately, to date there has not been an industry-wide open register of sensor models and their components. To address this issue, the 2018 Orleans Technical Committee passed a motion for the OGC Naming Authority (OGC-NA) to establish a sensor model register.

    The motion passed by the 2018 Orleans Technical Committee (TC) meeting read as follows: "The D&I DWG recommends that the OGC Naming Authority consider a mechanism to allow the creation of a well-defined, on-line registry capability to support registers which are recommended by a SWG or DWG. These need to be standardized and publicized in a machine-readable form with persistent identifiers. Register management will be within the scope of the OGC Naming Authority.  A workflow/approval mechanism for creating and updating a Register needs to also be defined. The DWG recommends the first register considered for this registry is the Sensor Model and parameters in order to take it under the control of a standards body".

    This document presents OGC policy on the registration of sensor models and their parameters. A sensor model register provides an authoritative lookup of identifiers of sensor models and their associated components such as sensor properties, transformation polynomials, and so on.

    ii. Keywords

    The following are keywords to be used by search engines and document catalogues.

    ogcdoc, OGC document, policy, naming authority, definitions, sensor model, parameters

    iii. Preface

    This document specifies a rule for constructing OGC names that may be used for identifying definitions of sensor models and their parameters. This document is formally a profile of the OGC policy 'OGC-NA Name type specification - definitions: Part 1 - basic name' (OGC 09-048r5).

    iv. Submitting organizations

    The following organizations submitted this Document to the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC):

    Organization name(s)

    • CSIRO

    • IGN

    • Metalinkage

    • WiSC

    • OGC

    v. Submitters

    All questions regarding this submission should be directed to the editor or the submitters:

    Table 1. Contacts
    Name Affiliation

    Gobe Hobona

    OGC

    Simon Cox

    CSIRO

    Emmanuel Devys

    IGN

    Rob Atkinson

    Metalinkage

    Charles Heazel

    WiSC

    Scott Simmons

    OGC

    1. Scope

    This OGC policy applies to sensor models and their parameters. A sensor model is a type of Location Model that allows one to georegister or co-register observations from a sensor (particularly remote sensors) (OGC 12-000).

    2. Conformance

    This document presents OGC policy on the registration of sensor models and their parameters.

    Conformance with this policy shall be checked using the naming rule and naming assignment policy defined in this document.

    3. References

    IETF: RFC 2141 URN Syntax, http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2141 (1997)

    IETF: RFC 2616 Hypertext Transfer Protocol — HTTP/1.1, http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2616 (1999)

    IETF: RFC 3986 Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax, http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986 (2005)

    IETF: RFC 4395 Guidelines and Registration Procedures for New URI Schemes, http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4395 (2006)

    IETF: RFC 5141 A Uniform Resource Name (URN) Namespace for the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5141 (2008)

    IETF: RFC 5165 A Uniform Resource Name (URN) Namespace for the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5165 (2008)

    IETF: RFC 5234 Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF, http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5234 (2008)

    OGC: OGC 05-020r25, Technical Committee Policies and Procedures, http://docs.opengeospatial.org/pol/05-020r25/05-020r25.html (2017)

    OGC: OGC 09-046r5, OGC Naming Authority – Procedures, http://www.opengeospatial.org/standards/na (2018)

    OGC: OGC 09-048r5, OGC-NA Name type specification - definitions: Part 1 - basic name', http://www.opengeospatial.org/standards/na (2010)

    OGC: OGC 12-000, OGC® SensorML: Model and XML Encoding Standard, https://portal.opengeospatial.org/files/?artifact_id=55939

    W3C: Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS), https://www.w3.org/TR/2009/REC-skos-reference-20090818 (2009)

    4. Terms and Definitions

    This document uses the terms defined in Sub-clause 5.3 of [OGC 06-121r8], which is based on the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, Rules for the structure and drafting of International Standards. In particular, the word “shall” (not “must”) is the verb form used to indicate a requirement to be strictly followed to conform to this standard.

    For the purposes of this document, the following additional terms and definitions apply.

    4.1. Observation

    Act of observing a property or phenomenon [ISO 19156, definition 4.10] Note: The goal of an observation may be to measure, estimate or otherwise determine the value of a property.

    4.2. Sensor

    An entity capable of observing a phenomenon and returning an observed value. Type of observation procedure that provides the estimated value of an observed property at its output. Note: A sensor uses a combination of physical, chemical or biological means in order to estimate the underlying observed property. At the end of the measuring chain electronic devices often produce signals to be processed. (OGC 12-000)

    4.3. Sensor Model

    A geopositioning mathematical description of the relationship between the three-dimensional object space and the two-dimensional plane of the associated image produced by a sensor (ISO/TS 19130)

    4.4. (Sensor) Platform

    An entity to which can be attached sensors or other platforms. A platform has an associated local coordinate reference frame that can be referenced relative to an external coordinate reference frame and to which the reference frames of attached sensors and platforms can be referenced.(OGC 12-000)

    5. Conventions

    This document uses the normative terms (SHALL, SHOULD, etc) defined in Subclause 5.3 of [OGC 06-121r3], which is based on the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2: Rules for the structure and drafting of International Standards. In particular, the word 'shall' (not 'must') is the verb form used to indicate a requirement to be strictly followed to comply with this specification.

    Name production rules in this document are expressed using ABNF (IETF RFC 5324).

    The namespaces and prefixes used in this document are introduced in the following table.

    Prefix Namespace

    owl

    http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#

    rdf

    http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#

    skos

    http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#

    dcterms

    http://purl.org/dc/terms/

    rdfs

    http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#

    dc

    http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/

    status

    http://www.opengis.net/def/status/

    policy

    http://www.opengis.net/def/metamodel/ogc-na/

    6. Naming Rule

    This section describes the naming rule. The section is taken from the OGC policy 'OGC-NA Name type specification - definitions: Part 1 - basic name' (OGC 09-048r3).

    6.1. OGC name schemes

    Two URI schemes [IETF RFC 3986] are defined by OGC to provide persistent names for resources of interest in geographic information infrastructures. These include schemas for URNs and HTTP URIs. The register of sensor models and parameters uses HTTP URIs as identifiers. The URIs are grounded on the www.opengis.net domain to ensure OGC is able to provide persistent resolvability of the URIs. The identifiers can be used across OGC standards to refer to parameters that have the same semantics.

    The generic syntax for OGC http URIs is

    URI = "http://www.opengis.net/" OGCResource "/" ResourceSpecificPath

    The following ABNF adapted from [IETF RFC 3986] provides some basic definitions required in the rest of this document.

    segment       = *pchar
    segment-nc    = *pchar-nc
    segment-nz    = 1*pchar
    segment-nz-nc = 1*pchar-nc
    pchar         = unreserved / pct-encoded / sub-delims / ":" / "@"
    pchar-nc      = unreserved / pct-encoded / sub-delims / "@"
    pct-encoded   = "%" HEXDIG HEXDIG
    unreserved    = ALPHA / DIGIT / "-" / "." / "_" / "~"
    reserved      = gen-delims / sub-delims
    gen-delims    = ":" / "/" / "?" / "#" / "[" / "]" / "@"
    sub-delims    = "!" / "$" / "&" / "'" / "(" / ")"
                    / "*" / "+" / "," / ";" / "="

    6.2. Production rule for specification element names

    The basic form for an OGC name that identifies a definition shall be produced using the following rule:

    OGCResource   = "def"
    ResourceSpecificPath = definition-type "/" authority "/" version "/" code
    ResourceSpecificString = definition-type ":" authority ":" versionURN ":" codeURN
    definition-type = segment-nz-nc ; a token from the register of OGC definition types
    authority     = segment-nz-nc ; a token from the register of OGC authorities
    version       = segment-nz-nc / "0" ; use 0 for un-versioned names
    code          = segment-nz-nc *( "/" segment-nz-nc )
    versionURN    = segment-nc ; this may be a zero-length string
    codeURN       = segment-nz-nc *( ":" segment-nz-nc )

    "version" or "versionURN" is a required field. For un-versioned definitions:

    • within the http URI form the version field shall be "0"

    • within the URN form versionURN shall be a zero-length string—so an un-versioned definition can be detected by a pair of colons "::".

    The actual code may be composed of a sequence of fields delimited by "/" in the http URI form, or ":" in the URN form.

    6.3. Additional rules specific to sensor models

    The following additional rules apply to sensor models:

    1. The definition-type in a URI identifying a sensor model shall be set as "sensor-model"

    2. The code segment of a URI identifying a sensor model shall begin with the acronym or UpperCamelCase name of the specification to which the sensor model belongs (e.g. NITF)

    An example URI conforming to the rules listed above is http://www.opengis.net/def/sensor-model/NTB/2.1/NITF/RPC00B

    The example is based on the National Imagery Transmission Format (NITF)[MIL-STD-2500C] and its Rapid Positioning Capability extension (RPC00B) [STDI-0002 App E]. In the example URI above, the NTB (NITF Technical Board) is the authority, the version number is 2.1, the specification is NITF and the sensor model name is RPC00B (in this case, the name of the NITF extension).

    Note
    The RPC00B contains rational function polynomial coefficients and normalization parameters that define the physical relationship between image coordinates and ground coordinates. That is, the extension is based on Rational Polynomial Coefficients (RPC).

    6.4. Additional rules specific to sensor model parameters

    The following additional rules apply to sensor model parameters:

    1. The definition-type in a URI shall be set as "sensor-model-param"

    2. The code segment of a URI shall begin with the acronym or UpperCamelCase name of the specification to which the sensor model parameter belongs (e.g. NITF)

    3. The last sub-segment of the code segment shall be a name unique within the sensor model

    4. The code segment of a URI may optionally include a sub-segment identifying the sensor model and/or other containers of the sensor model parameter.

    An example URI conforming to the rules listed above is http://www.opengis.net/def/sensor-model-param/NTB/2.1/NITF/RPC00B/LINE_OFF

    In the example URI above, the NTB is the authority, the version number is 2.1, the specification is NITF, the sensor model is RPC00B, the sensor model parameter is LINE_OFF.

    7. Name Assignment Policy

    7.1. Sensor Models

    The register of sensor models http://www.opengis.net/register/ogc-na/sensor-model is controlled by OGC-NA. Changes to this register (additions, deletions, and supersession) shall be initiated by a submission to the OGC Naming Authority names@opengeospatial.org.

    Any relevant stakeholder (OGC member or non-OGC member) may submit proposals for changes.

    7.2. Sensor Model Parameters

    The register of sensor model parameters http://www.opengis.net/register/ogc-na/sensor-model-param is controlled by OGC-NA. Changes to this register (additions, deletions, and supersession) shall be initiated by a submission to the OGC Naming Authority names@opengeospatial.org.

    Any relevant stakeholder (OGC member or non-OGC member) may submit proposals for changes.

    7.3. Description

    Each sensor model parameter shall be described using the Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) vocabulary of the World Wide Web (W3C) consortium. Other vocabularies may also be used in addition to SKOS, for example the OGC Semantic Registry Information Model (SRIM) cite:[Fellah2017].

    The following predicates are mandatory for describing sensor model and parameter resources:

    • skos:prefLabel for providing a human-readable version of a resource’s name

    • dcterms:created for stating the date the resource was created in the register

    • dcterms:modified for stating the date the resource was modified in the register (mandatory if the resource has been modified)

    • policy:status for indicating whether the resource is valid, retired, superseded, or under consideration

    • skos:definition for providing a human-readable description of the resource

    • skos:inScheme for stating the Concept Scheme to which the resource belongs

    • rdfs:label for providing a human-readable version of a resource’s name (used for compatibility with non-SKOS systems)

    An example of the use of the above-listed predicates is presented below in the Turtle format of the Resource Description Framework (RDF). Note that individual sensor model parameters are described as instances of the SKOS Concept class, whereas sensor models are described as instances of the SKOS ConceptScheme class.

    <http://www.opengis.net/def/sensor-model/NTB/2.1/NITF/RPC00B>
            a                 skos:ConceptScheme ;
            rdfs:label        "NITF Rapid Positioning Capability" ;
            dcterms:created   "2018-03-13"^^<http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#date> ;
            dcterms:modified  "2018-04-16"^^<http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#date> ;
            policy:status     status:valid ;
            skos:definition   "The sensor model supported by the RPC00B extension of the NITF standard contains rational function polynomial coefficients and normalization parameters that define the physical relationship between image coordinates and ground coordinates." ;
            skos:prefLabel    "NITF Rapid Positioning Capability" ;
            skos:broader     <http://www.opengis.net/def/sensor-model/OGC/0/RationalPolynomialCoefficients> .
    
    
    <http://www.opengis.net/def/sensor-model-param/NTB/2.1/NITF/RPC00B/LINE_OFF>
            a                 skos:Concept ;
            rdfs:label        "Line Offset" ;
            dcterms:created   "2018-03-13"^^<http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#date> ;
            dcterms:modified  "2018-04-16"^^<http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#date> ;
            policy:status     status:valid ;
            skos:definition   "Line Offset" ;
            skos:inScheme     <http://www.opengis.net/def/sensor-model/NTB/2.1/NITF/RPC00B> ;
            skos:prefLabel    "Line Offset" .

    Note the use of the SKOS broader predicate to represent the relationship of the sensor model adopted by RPC00B to the Rational Polynomial Coefficients model cite:[Guo2006].

    8. Examples

    http URI form:

    This policy has been designed to be able to support registration of models such as the: Community Sensor Model (CSM) cite:[GWG2017], Generic Point Cloud Model (GPM) cite:[GWG2015], Frame Sensor Model cite:[GWG2011], Pushbroom/Whiskbroom Sensor Model cite:[GWG2009], Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) Sensor Model cite:[GWG2011b], Spotlight Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Sensor Model cite:[GWG2010] and others defined in ISO/TS 19130-2 cite:[ISO2014] and extensions of the National Imagery Transmission Format (NITF) standard cite:[NTB2000].

    The following examples use ISO 19130 cite:[ISO2010] and NITF sensor model parameters cite:[MILSTD2500C] to illustrate how to construct an http URI based on this OGC policy. The NITF examples are based on the SENSRB extension cite:[NTB2013]. The examples have been informed by lessons learnt from the OGC Testbed series cite:[Androsevic2013].

    Example 1, below, illustrates an http URI value for the ISO 19130 True Replacement Model:

    Example 2, below, illustrates an http URI value for the NITF RPC00B model:

    Example 3, below, illustrates the http URI value for the 'region of validity' parameter of the ISO 19130 True Replacement Model:

    Example 4, below, illustrates the http URI value for the LAT_OFF parameter of the NITF RPC00B model cite:[NTB2000].

    Note

    SENSRB is a NITF tagged record extension for imaging electro-optical sensors [STDI-0002 App Z]. It was developed to enable the storage and use of geometric parameters from electro-optical sensor systems. It provides an encoding scheme to support implementation of the Community Sensor Model (CSM) Working Group’s guidance on geopositioning from frame, pushbroom, and whiskbroom sensors.

    Example 5, below, illustrates the http URI value for the REFERENCE_ROW field of the NITF SENSRB extension:

    Example 6, below, illustrates where the field is nested inside other objects and the hierarchy of nesting objects is identified as separate sections of the URI. The http URI value for the PLATFORM_HEADING field, contained inside a ATTITUDE_EULER_ANGLES object of the NITF SENSRB extension is:

    Annex A: Usage with SensorML (Informative)

    A.1. Introduction

    The OGC Sensor Model Language (SensorML) standard provides the means of semantically defining processes and their associated components with the measurement and post-measurement transformation of observations. Whereas the standard provides the means to describe sensor characteristics, it allows implementations to use their own identifiers for referencing their sensor characteristics. This enables interoperability by allowing the sensor characteristics to be described in a consistent syntax, however it also requires that applications attempting to interpret the sensor model descriptions understand the meaning of the identifiers before hand.

    A.2. Examples

    The following is an example of how to use OGC-registered ISO URIs with SensorML.

    
    <sml:SimpleProcess gml:id="example.1"
    xmlns:sml="http://www.opengis.net/sensorml/2.0"
    xmlns:swe="http://www.opengis.net/swe/2.0"
    xmlns:gml="http://www.opengis.net/gml/3.2"
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink"
    xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.opengis.net/sensorml/2.0 http://schemas.opengis.net/sensorML/2.0/sensorML.xsd"
    definition="http://www.opengis.net/def/sensor-model/ISO/0/ISO-19130/SD_SensorModel/trueReplacementModel/SD_TrueReplacementModel">
        <sml:parameters>
            <sml:ParameterList>
                <sml:parameter name="regionOfValidity">
                    <swe:DataRecord definition="http://www.opengis.net/def/sensor-model-param/ISO/0/ISO-19130/SD_TrueReplacementModel/regionOfValidity">
                        <swe:label>True Replacement Model regionOfValidity</swe:label>
                        <swe:field name="gridPoints">
                           <swe:Vector referenceFrame="http://www.opengis.net/def/cs/OGC/0/CartesianIndexed2D">
                              <swe:coordinate name="gridPoint1">
                                 <swe:Quantity definition="http://www.opengis.net/ont/gml#Point">
                                    <swe:uom code="GridSpacing"/>
                                 </swe:Quantity>
                              </swe:coordinate>
                              <swe:coordinate name="gridPoint2">
                                 <swe:Quantity definition="http://www.opengis.net/ont/gml#Point">
                                    <swe:uom code="GridSpacing"/>
                                 </swe:Quantity>
                              </swe:coordinate>
                              <swe:coordinate name="gridPoint3">
                                 <swe:Quantity definition="http://www.opengis.net/ont/gml#Point">
                                    <swe:uom code="GridSpacing"/>
                                 </swe:Quantity>
                              </swe:coordinate>
                              <swe:coordinate name="gridPoint4">
                                 <swe:Quantity definition="http://www.opengis.net/ont/gml#Point">
                                    <swe:uom code="GridSpacing"/>
                                 </swe:Quantity>
                              </swe:coordinate>
                           </swe:Vector>
                        </swe:field>
                    </swe:DataRecord>
                </sml:parameter>
            </sml:ParameterList>
        </sml:parameters>
    </sml:SimpleProcess>

    The following is an example of how to use OGC-registered NITF URIs with SensorML.

    <sml:SimpleProcess gml:id="example.2"
    xmlns:sml="http://www.opengis.net/sensorml/2.0"
    xmlns:swe="http://www.opengis.net/swe/2.0"
    xmlns:gml="http://www.opengis.net/gml/3.2"
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink"
    xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.opengis.net/sensorml/2.0 http://schemas.opengis.net/sensorML/2.0/sensorML.xsd"
    definition="http://www.opengis.net/def/sensor-model/NTB/2.1/NITF/SENSRB">
        <sml:parameters>
            <sml:ParameterList>
                <sml:parameter name="sensrbParams">
                    <swe:DataRecord definition="http://www.opengis.net/def/sensor-model-param/NTB/2.1/NITF/SENSRB/">
                        <swe:label>NITF SENSRB Sensor Model Parameters (subset of)</swe:label>
                        <swe:field name="referenceRow">
                            <swe:Quantity definition="http://www.opengis.net/def/sensor-model-param/NTB/2.1/NITF/SENSRB/REFERENCE_ROW">
                                <swe:label>Reference Row</swe:label>
                                <swe:uom code="pixel"/>
                            </swe:Quantity>
                        </swe:field>
                        <swe:field name="SENSOR_CALIBRATION_DATA">
                            <swe:DataRecord>
                                <swe:label>Sensor Calibration Data</swe:label>
                                <swe:field name="PRINCIPAL_POINT_OFFSET_X">
                                    <swe:Quantity definition="http://www.opengis.net/def/sensor-model-param/NTB/2.1/NITF/SENSRB/SENSOR_CALIBRATION_DATA/PRINCIPAL_POINT_OFFSET_X">
                                        <swe:label>PRINCIPAL_POINT_OFFSET_X</swe:label>
                                        <swe:uom code="pixel"/>
                                    </swe:Quantity>
                                </swe:field>
                                <swe:field name="PRINCIPAL_POINT_OFFSET_Y">
                                    <swe:Quantity definition="http://www.opengis.net/def/sensor-model-param/NTB/2.1/NITF/SENSRB/SENSOR_CALIBRATION_DATA/PRINCIPAL_POINT_OFFSET_Y">
                                        <swe:label>PRINCIPAL_POINT_OFFSET_Y</swe:label>
                                        <swe:uom code="pixel"/>
                                    </swe:Quantity>
                                </swe:field>
                            </swe:DataRecord>
                        </swe:field>
                    </swe:DataRecord>
                </sml:parameter>
            </sml:ParameterList>
        </sml:parameters>
    </sml:SimpleProcess>

    Annex B: Revision History

    Date Release Editor Primary clauses modified Description

    2018-04-13

    0.1

    G. Hobona

    all

    Initial draft document

    2018-04-27

    0.2

    G. Hobona

    all

    Revised based on feedback from contributors

    2018-05-14

    0.3

    G. Hobona

    annex a

    Schema validated SensorML examples

    2018-05-17

    0.4

    G. Hobona

    all

    Automated bibliography added. Cited additional GWG resources.

    2018-07-05

    1.0

    G. Hobona

    iii

    Included statement that any relevant stakeholder (OGC member or non-OGC member) may submit proposals for changes. Also included declaration of this policy as a profile of OGC-NA definitions policy (as per Fort Collins TC motion)

    Annex C: Bibliography

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