Publication Date: 2017-10-20
Approval Date: 2017-08-17
Posted Date: 2017-06-27
Reference number of this document: OGC 16-099
Reference URL for this document: http://www.opengis.net/doc/PER/FCP1-autoUP
Category: Public Engineering Report
Editor: Mohsen Kalantari
Title: Future City Pilot 1 - Automating Urban Planning Using Web Processing Service Engineering Report
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This document is not an OGC Standard. This document is an OGC Public Engineering Report created as a deliverable in an OGC Interoperability Initiative and is not an official position of the OGC membership. It is distributed for review and comment. It is subject to change without notice and may not be referred to as an OGC Standard. Further, any OGC Engineering Report should not be referenced as required or mandatory technology in procurements. However, the discussions in this document could very well lead to the definition of an OGC Standard.
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- 1. Introduction
- 2. References
- 3. Terms and definitions
- 4. Overview
- 5. FCP 1 and its requirements
- 6. Conceptual Design
- 7. FCP 1 - Automatic Urban Planning Demonstrator
- 8. Conclusions and future work
- Appendix A: Revision History
- Appendix B: Bibliography
Numerous and diverse technologies push cities towards open and platform-independent information infrastructures to manage human, natural, and physical systems. Future Cities Pilot 1 is an OGC interoperability initiative that aims to demonstrate how cities can begin to reap the benefits of open standards. This document reports how Web Processing Standard (WPS) of OGC was successfully used in automating urban planning processes. This document details the implementation of urban planning processes and rules concerning urban development approval processes.
Spatial representation of land development proposals are often submitted in 2D paper/image/CAD formats. The 2D design of even complex high-rise land developments is a norm. Moreover, land development assessments are applied in isolation since the responsible agencies usually do not have the infrastructure that enables sharing spatial data and automating the assessment process. This report outlines how land development proposal assessments can be automated through the use of WPS. This report illustrates that the use of a range of open standards including WPS can benefit the multi-stakeholder land development process.
This report is of interest for Web Processing Service SWG. It details an application of this standard in urban planning and land development assessment. The report confirms viability of WPS in urban planning and can be used as evidence-base for promoting the standard.
This report declares how WPS is used to parametrize several spatial and non-spatial data requirements of urban planning. The WPS reported in this ER involve interaction with an urban planning rules engine and WFS.
Urban Planning, Land Development, WPS, WFS, CityGML, IFC
Web Processing Service and CityGML SWGs.
The Future Cities Pilot is an OGC initiative to demonstrate how cities can benefit from open standards in managing human, physical, and natural systems. The first pilot project (FCP1) aimed to show how 3D modeling open standards such as IFC and CityGML can be used in urban planning and management scenarios. The scenarios included 1) the application of IFC and CityGML in land development proposal assessment, 2) the integration of CityGML with dynamic data feeds such as sensor observations and the utility of CityGML in solar energy potential of buildings, and 3) the value of CityGML in modeling urban flooding.
These scenarios were proposed and sponsored by Institut National de l’Information Géographique et Forestière - IGN (France), Ordnance Survey Great Britain (UK), and virtualcitySYSTEMS GmbH (Germany). The pilot participants that developed the solutions for Scenario 1 was University of Melbourne (Australia), for Scenario 2 was Technical University of Munich (Germany) and for Scenario 3 was Remote Sensing Solutions, Inc. (U.S.A).
Scenario 1 involved two objectives. The first objective was to demonstrate that 3D data in IFC and CityGML can provide land development assessment process with better information than that of 2D spatial data. The second objective was to demonstrate how the conformance with urban planning rules can be enhanced and automated through the adoption of WPS.
This OGC® document addresses the second objective of Scenario 1 in which several urban planning rules based on WPS are designed and developed.[OGC 16-16-097], which is part of FCP1, addresses the first objective of Scenario 1.
1.2. Document contributor contact points
All questions regarding this document should be directed to the editor or the contributors:
The University of Melbourne
Bart De Lathouwer
1.3. Future Work
No future work is planned to this document.
Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. The Open Geospatial Consortium shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.
Recipients of this document are requested to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent claims or other intellectual property rights of which they may be aware that might be infringed by any implementation of the standard set forth in this document, and to provide supporting documentation.
The following documents are referenced in this document. For dated references, subsequent amendments to, or revisions of, any of these publications do not apply. For undated references, the latest edition of the normative document referred to applies.
OGC: OGC 02-058, OGC® Web Feature Service, 2002
OGC: OGC 09-025r1, OGC® OpenGIS Web Feature Service 2.0 Interface Standard (also ISO 19142), 2010
OGC: OGC 05-007r7, OGC® Web Processing Service, 2007
OGC: OGC 12-009, OGC® OGC City Geography Markup Language (CityGML) Encoding Standard, 2012
OGC: OGC 16-097, Future City Pilot 1 - Using IFC/CityGML in Urban Planning Engineering Report, 2017
OGC: OGC 16-098, FCP1 Engineering Report, 2017
buildingSMART: Industry Foundation Classes IFC2x Edition 3, Technical Corrigendum 1, http://www.buildingsmart-tech.org/ifc/IFC2x3/TC1/html/index.htm, 2007
3. Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this report, the definitions specified in Clause 4 of OGC® Web Processing Service [OGC 14-065] shall apply.
3.1. Abbreviated terms
AEC - Architecture Engineering Construction
bSI - buildingSMART International
BIM - Building Information Modelling
CityGML - City Geography Markup Language
COLLADA - COLLAborative Design Activity
ER - Engineering Report
FCP1 - Future City Pilot Phase 1
GML - Geography Markup Language
GUI - Graphical User Interface
IFC - Industry Foundation Classes
KML - Keyhole Markup Language
LoD - Level of Detail
OGC - Open Geospatial Consortium
O&M - Observations & Measurements
PB - Protocol Buffers
UI - User Interface
WAR - Web application ARchive
WFS - Web Feature Service
WPS - Web Processing Service
XML - Extensible Markup Language
This report outlines the use of open standards in automating urban planning process. It includes the following sections. Section "FCP1 and it requirements" sets the scene and identifies urban planning as one of the key areas that open spatial data infrastructures can be of value. Specific urban requirements of FCP1 and together with its case study data are introduced. Section "Conceptual Design" reports a requirements analysis of urban planning and identifies three areas of inefficiencies. This section then presents the design of a system based on open platforms to address these inefficiencies. Section "Automatic Urban Planning Demonstrator" details the implementation of the design including tools that are used and developed. The ER is then concluded in the "Conclusion" section.
5. FCP 1 and its requirements
Digitally enhancing cities is essential for sustainable, prosperous, healthy and inclusive future for citizens by using advanced digital technologies. However, the digital enhancement requires diverse and numerous technologies that operate in space and time. The enhancement of cities cannot, therefore, be realised unless open standards platform is used for communicating spatial and temporal data.
Various cities around the world have successfully created 3D digital city models. These models have the potential to be used in several aspects of cities. For instance, current land development assessments can be significantly enhanced by using the 3D models of the proposed development and existing digital models. 3D models combined with real-time data of buildings' temperature and temperature change, energy and water use can provide information, knowledge and insight to enhance financial, environmental, and social outcomes for citizens living in cities. Or, 3D models can be used to better understand the dynamic of floods in cities and assessment of its damage on the buildings
Considering the potential of open standards in realising such scenarios, FCP 1 aimed at demonstrating standards-based location enabled information technology to advance a range of city services, improve governance and enable innovative citizen and consumer services. The pilot was required to prove the ability of spatial data infrastructures to support indicators of quality of life, civic initiatives and resilience. Several scenarios were considered in the pilot including urban planning, social services and urban resilience. This following outlines the FCP 1’s urban planning requirements.
5.1. Urban Planning Requirements
The use of BIM models encoded in IFC will become mandatory for major land development projects. The FCP 1’s urban planning requirement, therefore, included the use of BIM in the development approval process. It was required to automatically validate the proposed development against urban planning rules. In particular, it was required to use contextual information such as the surrounding city model, cadastre and road network to facilitate the validation process. Concerning the city models, it was required to consider mapping IFC to various levels of detail of CityGML including LoD 2, LoD 3 and LoD 4. It was also required to provide facilities for human inspection and verification of proposal such that urban planners can view the building project within the existing 3D model of the city and store in databases.
The following dataset was provided for urban planning scenario
BIM model (IFC) of the proposed development
Existing CityModel of the area of interest (CityGML profile, according to Ref3DNat recommendations, in LOD2 – or 3 in close future – with textures)
Roads and buildings footprint.
6. Conceptual Design
6.1. Requirements Analysis
Urban planning systems aim to establish affordable, socially-inclusive, environmentally-friendly environments for human settlement. Urban planning is an interplay of place, people, and purpose. Planning for where to live, work, and enjoy is therefore inherently a spatial process. The use of geospatial information system in urban planning is now well established. The use of small and large scale geospatial data such as planning zones, green areas, street networks, and property boundaries is an indispensable part of the planning processes for land development.
In urban planning, land development is considered to be a multi-stakeholder process, in which several agencies are involved. The agencies may include privately operated land surveying, land development, or architecture design firms or publicly-funded organizations such as municipalities, road authorities, land registries, or mapping agencies. Each agency plays a unique role in the land development approval process, but the process itself is about preparing development proposals and the application of rules and criteria defined in the regulation, some of which are location-dependent, against the proposals. Where the rules are location-dependent, the agencies use spatial data for assessing land development proposals. Spatial representation of development proposals may be prepared and designed using CAD or GIS software solutions but are often submitted in paper/image formats for assessment.
Some technology inefficiencies are evident in this process. First, even if proposals are submitted as data, the format may not be readily usable by processing agencies (1). Second, the 2D design of even complex high-rise land developments is a norm in representing proposals (2). Third, land development rules are applied in isolation since the responsible agencies usually do not have the infrastructure that enables sharing spatial data (3a) and automating rules (3b).
6.2. System Architecture
An open platform design is presented in this report to help, firstly, with transforming proposed development data into a format that is usable by several processing agencies (inefficiencies 1 and 3b) and secondly, with integrating data from several agencies for applying location-dependent rules against the proposal (inefficiency 3a). [OGC 16-16-097], which is part of FCP1, addresses (inefficiency 1 and 3) in a separate report.
The design enables execution of data transformation and location-dependent urban planning rules functionalities across a network of stakeholders by providing standardized inputs and outputs. The design involves four layers: User Interface, Logic, Service, and Data (Figure 1). The layers include 11 components including development approval workflow user interface, several database systems capable of managing various data formats, urban planning rules engine, data transformation engine, and web services for accessing data and processing.
Figure 1: System Architecture
Of significance to this ER, to address inefficiencies 1 and 3, a number of WPS based rules were designed for demonstration including 1) transforming IFC to CityGML, 2) checking building height , 3) checking building location, and 4) checking building footprint.
The components are described as below.
Component 1 is a part of the UI and is a web client that enables creating projects and uploading IFC files.
Component 2 is a database system that stores the content of IFC files.
Component 3 is a web service to provide access to IFC files of Component 2.
Component 4 is another aspect of the UI which is a web client for rendering and inspecting an IFC file and its elements.
Component 5 is the IFC to CityGML transformation function.
Component 6 is a web client to enable users to call Component 5 and download the resulted CityGML or execute WPS 1.
Component 7 (WPS 1) is a WPS based function that calls Component 5 and stores the resulted CityGML in a file server which is Component 8.
Component 9 is a database to store the CityGML data of the proposed development and existing city model.
Component 10 is the urban planning validation UI that allows executing urban planning rules against the development proposal data.
Component 11 is the urban planning rules engine.
Component 12 (WPS 2, 3, and 4) includes WPS based functions for specifying inputs and output parameters in executing urban planning rules using Component 11.
Component 13 is to access non-CityGML spatial data that are stored in Component 14 which is a spatial database.
Component 15 is a 3D data web service.
Component 16 is a 3D data web client for rendering the proposed development together with data about the surrounding environment.
7. FCP 1 - Automatic Urban Planning Demonstrator
In this section of the ER, the implementation of the system is detailed. First, the software components that were utilized are listed, and their utility is introduced. Then, the properties of the WPS based functions including their purpose, input, and output parameters are outlined.
7.1. Software components
BIMServer: The Building Information Model server (BIMserver.org) platform enables creating web based applications for BIM on the open standard IFC. IFC data are interpreted by a smart core and stored as objects in an underlying database. BIMserver is based on plugins in an open framework. The BIMserver software is free and open source (GNU Affero GPL) (BIMserver, 2017). It can support dynamic collaboration processes in urban planning where several players such as land developers, land registration officers, mapping agencies, and urban planners play a role. It has core server features like revisions, authorization, compare, query, model checking, merging, etc. BIMserver has open interfaces and network protocols (SOAP, PB, JSON), uses open standards, is built as a plugin framework for easy fine-tuning, has an admin configuration GUI, and developers documentation and SDKs. The core of the software is based on the open standard IFC. Components 1 to 5 of the demonstrator are built on BIMserver and its plug-ins. Screen captures of Components 1 and 4 are presented in Figures 2 and 3.
Figure 2: UI to upload IFC file.