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TimeseriesML 1.2 defines an XML encoding that implements the OGC Timeseries Profile of Observations and Measurements, with the intent of allowing the exchange of such data sets across information systems. Through the use of existing OGC standards, it aims at being an interoperable exchange format that may be re-used to address a range of data exchange requirements.
The following are keywords to be used by search engines and document catalogues.
This standard is an XML implementation of the conceptual model defined in OGC Timeseries Profile of Observations and Measurements. This standard has been developed from work initially undertaken within OGC WaterML 2.0: Part 1 – Timeseries.
Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. The Open Geospatial Consortium shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.
Recipients of this document are requested to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent claims or other intellectual property rights of which they may be aware that might be infringed by any implementation of the standard set forth in this document, and to provide supporting documentation.
iv. Security Considerations
No security considerations have been made for this standard
v. Submitting organizations
The following organizations submitted this Document to the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC):
Australian Bureau of Meteorology
Australian Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO)
US National Weather Service
All questions regarding this submission should be directed to the editor or the submitters:
Australian Bureau of Meteorology
Australian Bureau of Meteorology
Australian Bureau of Meteorology
US National Weather Service
This document is an OGC® Implementation Standard for the representation of the Timeseries Profile of Observations and Measurements as XML. TimeseriesML 1.2 is implemented as an application schema of the Geography Markup Language version 3.3, making use of the OGC Observations & Measurements standards. TimeseriesML 1.2 is designed as an extensible schema to allow encoding of data to be used in a variety of exchange scenarios. Example areas of usage are: cross-border exchange of observational data; release of data for public dissemination; enhancing disaster management through data exchange; and exchange in support of national reporting. The core aspect of the Timeseries Profile of Observations and Measurements is the correct, precise description of timeseries. This document defines an implementation of this profile.
This standard defines an XML encoding standard for the OGC Timeseries Profile of Observations and Measurements.
Conformance with this standard shall be checked using all the relevant tests specified in Annex A (normative) of this document. The framework, concepts, and methodology for testing, and the criteria to be achieved to claim conformance are specified in the OGC Compliance Testing Policies and Procedures and the OGC Compliance Testing web site.
In order to conform to this OGC®interface standard, a software implementation shall choose to implement:
a) Any one of the conformance levels specified in Annex A (normative).
All requirements-classes and conformance-classes described in this document are owned by the standard(s) identified.
The following normative documents contain provisions that, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of this document. For dated references, subsequent amendments to, or revisions of, any of these publications do not apply. For undated references, the latest edition of the normative document referred to applies.
OGC 15-043r3 – Timeseries Profile of Observations and Measurements
OGC 08-131r3 – The Specification Model – A Standard for Modular Specification
ISO 19103:2005 – Conceptual Schema Language
ISO 19108:2002 -Geographic information - Temporal schema
ISO 19109:2005 -Geographic information – Rules for application schema
ISO 8601- Data elements and interchange formats – Information interchange – Representation of dates and times
OGC 10-004r3 OGC Abstract Specification Topic 20 – Observations and Measurements (aka ISO 19156:2011)
OGC 08-015r2 OGC Abstract Specification Topic 2 – Spatial Referencing by Coordinates (aka ISO 19111:2007)
OGC 07-011 OGC Abstract Specification Topic 6 – Schema for Coverage geometry and functions (aka ISO 19123:2005)
OGC 01-111 OGC Abstract Specification Topic 11 – Geographic information — Metadata (aka ISO 19115:2003)
ISO: ISO 19115:2003, Geographic information — Metadata, 2003
OGC 07-036 Geography Markup Language (aka ISO 19136:2007)
OGC 09-146r2 Implementation Schema for Coverages (1.0.1)
OGC 10-126r4 OGC WaterML2.0 part 1 – Timeseries.
OGC 08-094r1 OGC SWE Common Data Model Encoding Standard v2.0
The UCUM Organization: Unified Code for Units of Measure (UCUM) – Version 1.8, July 2009
OGM: Unified Modeling Language (UML). Version 2.3. May 2010.
W3C: Extensible Markup Language (XML) – Version 1.0 (Fourth Edition), August 2006
W3C: XML Schema – Version 1.0 (Second Edition), October 2004
4. Terms and Definitions
This document uses the terms defined in Sub-clause 5.3 of [OGC 06-121r8], which is based on the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, Rules for the structure and drafting of International Standards. In particular, the word “shall” (not “must”) is the verb form used to indicate a requirement to be strictly followed to conform to this standard.
For the purpose of this document, the following additional terms and definitions apply:
Feature that acts as a function to return values from its range for any direct position within its spatial, temporal or spatiotemporal domain
[ISO 19123:2005, definition 4.17]
4.2 Domain Feature
Feature of a type defined within a particular application domain
[ISO 19156, definition 4.4]
Abstraction of real-world phenomena
[ISO 19101:2002, definition 4.11]
Act of observing a property
[ISO 19156, definition 4.10]
4.5 Observation Procedure
Method, algorithm or instrument, or system of these which may be used in making an observation
[ISO 19156, definition 4.11]
4.6 Property <General Feature Model>
Facet or attribute of an object referenced by a name
EXAMPLE: Abby’s car has the color red where “color red” is a property of the car instance
4.7 Sampling Feature
Feature, such as a station, transect, section or specimen, which is involved in making observations concerning a domain feature
[ISO 19156, definition 4.16]
Type of observation procedure that provides the estimated value of an observed property at its output
Note: A sensor uses a combination of physical, chemical or biological means in order to estimate the underlying observed property. At the end of the measuring chain electronic devices often produce signals to be processed
[OGC SWE Common 2.0, definition 4.5.]
A sequence of data values which are ordered in time. The sequence typically records (or predicts) the value of a property of a feature over a time interval, with interim values at times within the interval. These times are monotonic and are often, but not always, at regular intervals (e.g. an hourly timeseries).
5.1 Abbreviated Terms
In this document the following abbreviations and acronyms are used or introduced:
GMLCOV OGC Implementation Schema for Coverages
ISO International Organization for Standardization
O&M Observations and Measurements
OGC Open Geospatial Consortium
SensorML Sensor Model Language
SWE Sensor Web Enablement
TVP Time-Value Pair
UML Unified Modeling Language
UTC Coordinated Universal Time
5.2 UML Notation
The diagrams that appear in this standard are presented using the Unified Modeling Language (UML) static structure diagram.
Note: Within the context of this profile, the following color scheme is used to identify the package in which the class exists. This is just for informative purposes.
Blue: Defined within the Timeseries Profile of O&M (conceptual model)
Yellow: Defined within this standard (XML implementation model)
Green: ISO19156 – Observations & Measurements
Red: Other (ISO or GML)
5.3 Finding Requirements and Recommendations
This standard is identified as http://www.opengis.net/spec/timeseriesml/1.2. For clarity, each normative statement in this standard is in one and only one place and defined within a requirements class table and identified with a URI, whose root is the specification URI. In this standard, all requirements are associated to tests in the abstract test suite in Annex A using the URL of the requirement as the reference identifier.
Requirements classes are separated into their own clauses and named and specified according to inheritance (direct dependencies). The Conformance test classes in the test suite are similarly named to establish an explicit and mnemonic link between requirements classes and conformance test classes.
6. XML Implementation (normative)
In addition to the UML conceptual model this standard defines a GML XML Schema implementation that is compliant to the UML conceptual model. The XML Schemas for this implementation are published at:
Schematron patterns are implemented for some requirements where appropriate and are published at the same location.
6.1 XML encoding principles
The following principles apply to data encoded according to the TimeseriesML 1.2 XML schema.
6.1.1 Conformance to GML 3.3 encoding rules for codelists
This XML Schema implementation imports the OGC GML 3.2.1 schemas. However, codelists are implemented according to the clarified rules for codelists in the OGC GML 3.3 specification. Namely that items in codelists are referred to using gml:ReferenceType and not encoded with gml:CodeType.
None of the GML 3.3 schema types are used in this implementation and therefore only GML 3.2.1 schemas are imported by the TimeseriesML 1.2 XML schemas. This is consistent with the note in the GML 3.3 specification which reads: A GML application schema conforming to thisstandard will import the GML 3.2 schema plus zero or more additional GML 3.3 schemas as needed.
6.1.2 Extends the OGC Implementation Schema for Coverages
The TimeseriesML schema supports both an interleaved time-value pair encoding and a domain, range encoding. The domain, range encoding inherits from the coverage schema defined in the OGC Implementation Schema for Coverages (09-146r2). The interleaved timeseries encoding is a representation of a special case of the CV_DiscreteCoverage class from OGC Abstract Specification Topic 6, in which each GeometryValuePair has a ‘geometry’ which is a timestamp, and a ‘value’ which is a measure or other simple datatype. The OGC CIS v1.1 specification provides alternative representations of coverages, including an option for interleaving coverages, which can be useful for timeseries of more complex values.
6.1.3 Virtual typing
In accordance with OMXML, the specialization of the OM_Observation result type is provided through schematron restriction. The om:type element may be used to specify the type of OM_Observation that is being encoded. This shall be done using the OGC Name URI for the corresponding type from the following table.
This XML Schema implementation takes the approach that, where conceptual classes can be combined without loss of clarity, they are. For example, the same metadata classes are used for both Categorical and Measurement timeseries. This is to avoid a proliferation of similar classes in the XML encoding.
The following table outlines the mapping between the conceptual model and the XML Schema implementation.
Table : Mapping of Timeseries Profile of Observations and Measurments toTimeseriesML 1.2 XML Schema types.
Timeseries Profile of Observations and Measurements
TimeseriesML 1.2 XML
* The specialization of OM_Observation
is provided through Schematron rather than a
specialized XML type.
6.1.5 Abstract requirements and conformances classes
As noted in the OGC Modular Specification section 6.2, the tests for abstract conformance classes may need to be described in the subclass classes if the base requirements classes are ambiguous for the abstract class. This is the case for the two styles of timeseries conformance classes, domain-range and interleaved (time-value pair). Some requirements for these classes are re-specified in more concrete terms to allow more explicit testing.
6.2 XML Examples
XML examples are published alongside the XML schemas at http://schemas.opengis.net/tsml/1.2/. In all examples, the following namespaces are used.
date-time elements shall be encoded using ISO8601 extended time format.
value of each time element (defined in the TimeValuePairType
‘time’ element) shall include a time zone definition using a signed 4-digit
character or a ‘Z’ to represent Zulu or Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). This is
defined by the following regular expression:
units of measure shall use the appropriate code from The Unified Code for
Units of Measure (UCUM) code system. The unit of measure shall be identified
by encoding the UCUM code1 in the ‘code’ attribute of the tsml:uom element.
1 The UCUM base codes are available in
XML form here:
using the SWE Common types, the following elements shall not be used: swe:quality (AbstractSimpleComponentType), swe:nilValues
The attributes ‘optional’ and ‘updatable’ from the base type ‘AbstractDataComponent’ shall also not be used.
If an xlink:href is used to reference
a controlled vocabulary item, the element should encode the xlink:title attribute with a text description of the
specifying references to vocabulary (code) items using an xlink:href, a resolvable HTTP URL should be used
which, when resolved, should provide suitable description of the concept
If an xlink:href is a local reference
then the referenced element must exist.
6.3.1 Requirements class overview
This requirements class contains a set of general rules applicable to the XML encoding.
The xml element om:procedure shall contain an
element which is a subtype of OM_Process, such
element, or a subtype of SWE AbstractProcess or a
reference to an external definition of the process using the xlink:href attribute.
The om:phenomenonTime element shall
contain a gml:TimePeriod element that represents
the temporal extent of the timeseries result of the observation.
6.4.1 Requirements class overview
This requirements class restricts the content model for the XML element OM_Observation relating specifically to timeseries observations. The requirements classes that depend on this class describe specific result types of time series. The restrictions rules for OM_Observation are captured in the ‘xsd-timeseries-observation.sch’ Schematron file.
xml element om:result
shall contain a concrete subelement in the
substitution group tsml:TimeseriesTVP.
6.5.1 Requirements class overview
This requirements class captures the core type of timeseries observation – one with a result of an interleaved time-value pair timeseries. This restriction is defined in the ‘xsd-timeseries-tvp-observation.sch’ Schematron file.
xml element om:result
shall have a value that matches the content model defined by tsml:CategoricalTVP.
6.6.1 Requirements class overview
This requirements class restricts the type of timeseries observation to one with a result of an interleaved time-value pair timeseries where each value is a Category. This restriction is defined in the ‘xsd-categorical-timeseries-tvp-observation.sch’ Schematron file.
xml element om:result
shall have a value that matches the content model defined by tsml:MeasurementTVP.
6.7.1 Requirements class overview
This requirements class restricts the type of timeseries observation to one with a result of an interleaved time-value pair timeseries where each value is a Measure. This restriction is defined in the ‘xsd-measurement-timeseries-tvp-observation.sch’ Schematron file.
The content model of this XML element shall have a value that
matches the content model defined by tsml:TimeseriesTVP.
domain elements (implemented as the tsml:point
element) shall be ordered in increasing time.
type of the tsml:value element (range) shall be the
same for each point in the timeseries, with the exception null values which
may be used on any value.
domain of the timeseries coverage shall consist only of a temporal component.
element defaultPointMetadata is present, the
specified metadata elements apply as default values to all subsequent point
elements encoded in the timeseries. If a metadata element is specified for a point then it overrides the default value. For elements
with multiple cardinality (e.g. qualifiers), defaults shall be overridden if
a single element is defined in the metadata.
baseTimeand spacing elements are defined, the time element shall not be encoded. The time instants shall be
calculated according to the following:
(n) = baseTime + (n * spacing)
zero-based point index.
e.g. baseTime= 2011-01-01T00:00:00, spacing=P15M
 - 2011-01-01T00:00:00
baseTime and spacing elements are not present, the
time element shall be encoded.
indicate a value is null, the xsi:nil
attribute shall be set to ‘true’.
point is specified as null, a nilReason or censoredReason shall be provided.
specifying a null point reason (nilReason), one of
the following URLs should be used:
The content model of this XML element shall have a value that
matches the content model defined by tsml:TimeseriesDomainRange.
The domain elements
shall be ordered in increasing time.
The type of each range
element shall be the same for each point in the timeseries, with the
exception null values which may be used on any value.
The domain of the
timeseries coverage shall consist only of a temporal component.
If the element defaultPointMetadata is present, the specified metadata
elements apply as default values to all subsequent point elements encoded in
the timeseries. If a metadata element is specified for a point
then it overrides the default value. For elements with multiple cardinality
(e.g. qualifiers), defaults shall be overridden if a single element is
defined in the metadata.
6.14.1 Requirements class overview
The Domain Range Encoding schema contains types suitable for encoding TimeSeries (both Measurement and Categorical) in a domain (times), range (values) block. This schema extends the OGC GMLCov schema.
The TimeseriesDomainRange encoding extends the OGC Implementation Model for Coverages by adding bespoke metadata and annotation elements.
The class TimeseriesDomainRange is used for all domain range encodings. It extends the GMLCov DiscreteCoverage with a timeseries metadata extension.
6.14.2 TimeseriesMetadataExtension properties
TimeseriesMetadataExtension enables use of TimeseriesML metadata classes in GMLCov XML schema. The associated XML examples demonstrate how this is applied in practice.
An annotation coverage corresponding
to points on the timeseries.
Default metadata for each point in the
Metadata applicable to the whole
timeseries or individual regularly spaced segments of an irregularly spaced
6.14.3 AnnotationCoverage properties
An annotation coverage can be used to apply metadata to individual points in the timeseries.
Informative note: In the XML Schema the AnnotationCoverage is a specialization of the gmlcov:AbstractDiscreteGoverage XML Schema type. This standard is not otherwise prescriptive about the content of the AnnotationCoverage beyond that specified in the OGC Coverages Implementation Model, but it could be used to provide a value array or list of comments or other values as in the two examples below.
<tsml:AnnotationCoverage gml:id="quality_cov"><gml:domainSet xlink:href="#temporal_domain"/><gml:rangeSet><gml:CategoryList codeSpace=“http://opengis.net/def/waterml/2.0/quality/”>good bad good missing good bad</gml:CategoryList></gml:rangeSet><gmlcov:rangeType/></tsml:AnnotationCoverage><tsml:AnnotationCoverage gml:id="comment_cov"><gml:domainSet xlink:href="#temporal_domain"/><gml:rangeSet><gml:ValueArray gml:id="comment_array"><gml:valueComponents><gml:Category>This is a free text comment</gml:Category><gml:Category xsi:nil=“true”/><gml:Category>Example comment</gml:Category><gml:Category>Another one</gml:Category><gml:Category>Has to be one for each point</gml:Category></gml:valueComponents></gml:ValueArray></gml:rangeSet><gmlcov:rangeType/></tsml:AnnotationCoverage>
6.14.4 TimeseriesDomainRange properties
The TimeseriesDomainRange element extends the OGC coverage model with metadata extensions for timeseries data. The metadata classes are the same as for the time-value pair encoding.
Metadata extension to accommodate TimeseriesML 1.2 metadata classes.
If present, the sub-element 'type'
shall indicate the class of timeseries. A register of type identifiers
corresponding with the timeseries types in TimeseriesML
1.2, is provided by OGC at http://www.opengis.net/def/timeseriesType/timeseriesML/1.2/
content model of this element shall have a value that matches the content
model defined by tsml:Collection.
sampling features shall be described using SF_SpatialSamplingFeature
or a derivative thereof.
of sampling points shall be described using SF_SamplingFeatureCollection
feature type from ISO19156.
6.15.1 Requirements class overview
The Collection schema contains a collection element as well as other document specific types.
The XML Schema implementation of Collection maps closely to the conceptual model. The key implementation points to note are that all observationMembers are implemented by OM_Observation, and that ConformanceClass is implemented as a reference (xlink:href) from DocumentMetadata.
188.8.131.52 Collection properties
TimeseriesML defines a generic collection feature type, Collection, to allow the grouping of observations and/or sampling features with metadata to describe the nature of the collection. Such collections are required in a number of data exchange scenarios; whether the underlying transport technology is web services, FTP or other technologies.
One or more timeseries observations
A sampling feature or group of
Use this extension point for
community-agreed extensions to the schema.
Use this extension point for internal
extensions that have not been defined for external use.
The date this data was generated.
The system from which this data was
This version property is distinct from
the version of the TimeseriesML schema. It is a
version of the whole standards package: schema, vocabularies, used profiles
etc. I.e., a version to allow specific versions associated with usage of a
schema version with other components.
Describes the temporal extent of the
all the timeseries contained within the collection (if they exist).
A dictionary containing definitions of
Provides a context for identification
of particular data elements through use of MD_DataIdentification.
These can be referenced from individual timeseries values.
A soft-typed parameter for extra
Profile may be used to reference a
definition of a conformance class that this document conforms to.
184.108.40.206 SamplingFeatureMember properties
A sampling feature member may be either a single sampling feature (e.g. MonitoringFeature) or a group of features (SF_SamplingFeatureCollection). This is a Union class.