Publication Date: 2020-04-27

Approval Date: 2019-11-22

Posted Date: 2019-09-09

Reference number of this document: OGC 19-053

Reference URL for this document: http://www.opengis.net/doc/IP/userguide/19-053

Category: User Guide

Editor: Ken Geange, Jason MacDonald, Robert Thomas, Terry Idol

Title: OGC Disasters Resilience Pilot User Guide: Using Web Enterprise Suite for Flood, Wildfire and Hurricane Disaster Response


COPYRIGHT

Copyright © 2020 Open Geospatial Consortium. To obtain additional rights of use, visit http://www.opengeospatial.org/

Important

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. The Open Geospatial Consortium shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Recipients of this document are requested to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent claims or other intellectual property rights of which they may be aware that might be infringed by any implementation of the standard set forth in this document, and to provide supporting documentation.

Note

This document is a user guide created as a deliverable in an OGC Interoperability Initiative as a user guide to the work of that initiative and is not an official position of the OGC membership. There may be additional valid approaches beyond what is described in this user guide.


POINTS OF CONTACT

Name

Organization

Ken Geange

Compusult Limited

Jason MacDonald

Compusult Limited


1. Introduction

Disasters can strike at any time, so being prepared ensures a timely, focused, and organized response. Using tools and data based on open standards enables the exchange of geospatial data between systems, thus providing disaster planners and first responders with a foundation to plan their response.

This User Guide provides guidance for using platforms built on open standards, such as Compusult’s Web Enterprise Suite (WES), to provide a timely response to flood, wildfire, and hurricane disasters.

These three disaster scenarios will be discussed with respect to providing the necessary information to specific user groups when they need it.

  • During the flood scenario, a disaster response will be planned from the perspective of a City Emergency Operations Center Manager in St. Louis, MO, USA.

  • In the case of the wildfire scenario a disaster response will be explored from the perspective of a Kamloops Fire Emergency Operations Center Manager in Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada.

  • During the hurricane scenario a disaster response will be explored from the perspective of a State Emergency Operations Center Manager in Puerto Rico.

Throughout these three scenarios, the use of WES will be discussed as a means to gather, analyze, and disseminate information to planners and first responders to inform them about affected areas with respect to incidents such as infrastructure status, road closures, hospital / care facilities, earth observations, such as hotspots or water level, and weather information.

WES, built on open geospatial standards, is a comprehensive suite of tools that can be used to build responses to many disaster scenarios using a wide range of open geospatial data services. The WES Catalog is a key component of the system, and following the Open Geospatial Consortium’s (OGC) Catalog Service for the Web (CSW) standard, allows users and user communities to publish metadata about their geospatial assets using open standard based APIs. This allows discovery of those assets by users planning a disaster response. Using a tool such as WES these geospatial assets can be searched, discovered, and organized into a collection specific to a given disaster; in WES this collection is known as a Portfolio. Portfolios also provide the foundation on which other functionality, such as messaging, activities, and tasking are built.

Chapter 2 outlines the basic architectural overview of the WES system, the data providers, catalog providers and data consumers.

Chapter 3 discusses the users and use cases of each scenario.

Chapter 4 discusses the special topics which arose during the pilot, which are not covered in detail in other sections in the user guide.

Chapter 5 presents how a standards-based tool, such as WES, will be used in each of the scenarios.

1.1. Scenarios

The three scenarios that will be explored in this guide are:

1.1.1. Flood

Region: St. Louis, MO, USA
User: City Emergency Operations Center Manager
Use Case: As water levels rise, the manager needs to plan, organize, and dispatch first aid personnel to affected areas, taking into account road closures, current traffic information, increasing water levels, and reported incidents.

1.1.2. Wildfire

Region: Kamloops, BC, Canada
User: Kamloops Fire Emergency Operations Center Manager
Use Case: As the wildfire spreads, the manager needs to plan, organize and dispatch fire fighter response personnel to the highest risk areas, taking into account the current weather conditions and winds, road closures, forest types, population demographics, and reported incidents.

1.1.3. Hurricane

Region: Puerto Rico
User: State Emergency Operations Center Manager
Use Case: In the hours before a hurricane makes landfall, the manager needs to plan an evacuation response with local city departments, using environmental data (weather conditions and forecasts) and geospatial data (Satellite / Sentinel imagery, 2D and 3D maps, planned evacuation routes layers) and then monitor that response through the use of sensor information, infrastructure status, road closures, hospital / care facility capacity, reported incidents, weather information, field collected data.

2. Simple Architecture

This section will provide an architectural overview of the tools and data used to plan a response to the flood, wildfire and hurricane disasters scenarios.

Compusult will demonstrate the use of WES and GoMobile to support disaster response during the disaster scenarios. The following WES components will be used during the response:

  • Catalog - The WES Catalog populated with a repository of services relevant to the specific disaster

  • Portfolios - Collections of geospatial assets associated with a given disaster

  • GeoPackage - Data storage for disaster data to be enhanced via GoMobile

  • GoMobile - A mobile application for display of data in disconnected operations, as well as feature data collection including media (photos and video) that can be synchronized back to the main control center

  • SensorHub - IoT and sensor integration

The WES components listed above provide the following functionality before, during, and after a disaster scenario:

  • 2D Mapping - Open Street Maps, WMS/WMTS Map Layers, ArcGIS Map Layers, Satellite / Sentinel Imagery

  • 3D City, Indoor, Terrain Models – 3D building models, 3D terrain models, and navigation capabilities, where available

  • Weather Reporting – Live feed of weather data displayed as a layer on the map

  • Vehicle Tracking / Simulation – Live feed of data representing service vehicles, fire trucks, ambulances, planes, helicopters, and ships overlaid on the map

  • Evacuation Routes – Overlaid as a map layer, if available

  • Feature Data Sync of Field Data via GO Mobile – Allows first responders to gather data on an Android phone or tablet to share with others

  • Collaboration – Chat, Tasking, Activities and Discussions between users of WES and GoMobile

D2 Simple Architecture 54842
Figure 1. WES Suite

2.1. Data Providers

Various data providers will be used throughout the pilot. These providers include:

Flood (Region: St. Louis, MO, USA)
  • U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)

  • National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

  • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)

  • Health Solutions Research, Inc (HSR)

  • Data.gov

Wildfire (Region: Okanagan Valley, BC, Canada)
  • Government of British Columbia (DataBC)

  • Meteorological Service of Canada

  • Environment Canada

  • National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

Hurricane (Region: Puerto Rico)
  • National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

  • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)

  • U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)

  • Health Solutions Research, Inc (HSR)

  • National Hurricane Center

  • Data.gov

  • European Space Agency (ESA)

2.2. Catalog Providers

The WES Catalog is built on the OGC Catalogue Service-Web (CSW) standard and therefore inherits the ability to harvest various data services. Those services include catalogs that are also built on the standard. Compusult will integrate and collaborate with existing SDIs and catalog providers which will be harvested into the WES Catalog for disaster resilience planning. These include:

  1. AmeriGEOSS Data Hub: AmeriGEOSS is a regional Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) for continent of North America. It provides discovery and access to data, tools, services and resources for Earth Observations in North American. The Data Hub is made available through the Comprehensive Knowledge Archive Network (CKAN). It currently hosts more than 440K data/services/tools.

  2. NextGEOSS: NextGEOSS is a centralized European Earth observation data hub and platform, where the users can connect to access data and deploy applications. The concept revolves around providing the data and ICT resources needed, together with cloud services, seamlessly connected to provide an integrated ecosystem for supporting Earth observation-based applications and services.

  3. GeoPlatform.gov: GeoPlatform.gov is a data portal to find new, trending, and noteworthy items – such as data, web services, press releases, articles, and more. This content changes frequently to keep users up-to-date with current and relevant information about GeoPlatform, its resources, and the GIS community.

  4. NASA Common Metadata Repository (CMR): CMR is a comprehensive metadata system for all data and service metadata for NASA’s Earth Observation System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS). It also functions as the International Directory Network (IDN) of CEOS to catalog, maintain, and discover Earth Observation (EO) data of CEOS.

  5. FedEO (Federated Earth Observation missions access): FedEO is a large Catalog that is operated by ESA. Together with CWIC, it forms one of the core component aggregate catalogs under CEOS.

Compusult’s WES CSW has implemented the auto-harvest capability of the OGC CSW standard so harvesting can be scheduled to automatically run hourly, daily, or weekly to harvest any new records from the source CSW.

2.3. Data Consumers

Standards-based tools such as WES and Go Mobile can be used to analyze and disseminate information to disaster planners and first responders, specifically City and State Emergency Operations Center Managers and Planners.

D2 Simple Architecture 0deb4
Figure 2. Basic Disaster Scenario Flow

3. General Use Cases by User Activity

This pilot focuses on three users and their use cases in three separate scenarios. In the flood scenario, the focus is on a City Emergency Operations Center Manager in St. Louis, MO during a major rainfall which is causing the Mississippi river to rise to a flood level and hours away from flooding the banks of the river. In the wildfire scenario, the focus is on a Kamloops Fire Emergency Operations Center Manager as they plan a response to a wildfire in the Okanogan Valley, BC. In the hurricane scenario, the focus is on a State Emergency Operations Center Manager in Puerto Rico, one week prior to projected landfall of a major hurricane, anticipating flooding in the state.

3.1. Publication of data

A Wildfire Operations Center Manager prepares for an upcoming wildfire event by researching and compiling authoritative data about the terrain, vegetation, land use, current and forecasted weather conditions and other factors that are useful for planning purposes. This data would come from a variety of stakeholders such as provincial and federal government agencies, local officials, social media, and private companies.

A City Emergency Operations Center Manager prepares for an upcoming Flood event by researching and compiling authoritative data about the terrain, city maps, land use, transportation networks, current and forecasted weather conditions, rainfall accumulation data and real-time water levels from sensor data. This data would come from a variety of stakeholders such as federal government agencies, local officials, social media, and private companies.

A State Emergency Operations Center Manager prepares for an upcoming Hurricane event by researching and compiling authoritative data about the terrain, city maps, land use, transportation networks, current and forecasted weather conditions, rainfall accumulation data, real-time water levels from sensor data, and health data. This data would come from a variety of stakeholders such as state and federal government agencies, local officials, social media, and private companies.

The metadata for geospatial data services specific to each scenario noted above are published into the WES Catalog, an OGC-compliant CSW catalog, by a geospatial data administrator as outlined below. These geospatial data services may be sourced from a range of providers as mentioned above, and may be comprised of multiple map layers in a variety of data formats. This catalog of geospatial data assets will provide the foundation from which the disaster response is planned.

D3 General use cases 512db
Figure 3. Types of Data Services

OGC CSW-based Catalogs such as WES, support many of the OGC services as shown in Figure 4 below:

D3 General use cases 2c4b8
Figure 4. Types of OGC Data Services

Geospatial data administrators publish metadata for the above services into the WES Catalog using the "Publish to Catalog" feature of WES. This feature publishes all metadata for the service into the catalog and optionally downloads the associated geospatial data into WES.