Methane (CH4) is one of the most potent greenhouse gases, and the comparative impact of methane is 25 times greater than CO2 over a 100-year period. Methane is an invisible and odorless gas, and it is very labor intensive and time consuming in order to detect and repair leaks. Regulations play a critical role in methane emissions reduction, and how methane emissions are detected, repaired, and managed is highly dependent on local regulations. This OGC Best Practice document defines a SensorThings API for fugitive methane emissions management.
The following are keywords to be used by search engines and document catalogues.
ogcdoc, OGC document, sensor web, API, methane, methane emissions, Internet of Things, SensorThings, climate change
Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. The Open Geospatial Consortium shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.
Recipients of this document are requested to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent claims or other intellectual property rights of which they may be aware that might be infringed by any implementation of the standard set forth in this document, and to provide supporting documentation.
IV. Security considerations
No security considerations have been made for this document.
V. Submitting Organizations
The following organizations submitted this Document to the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC):
- SensorUp Inc.
- the University of Calgary
- TC Energy
- Fraunhofer IOSB
All questions regarding this submission should be directed to the editor or the submitters:
|Steve Liang||SensorUp Inc./University of Calgary|
|John Tang||TC Energy|
|Patrick Kelly||TC Energy|
|Sara Saeedi||University of Calgary|
|Sina Kiaei||University of Calgary|
|Hylke van der Schaaf||Fraunhofer IOSB|
The editor would like to acknowledge that this work is the result of collaboration and review of many organizations and would like to thank for the comments and contributions from:
GeoConnections, Natural Resources Canada
Canadian Natural Resources (CNRL)
Note: this does not imply a complete endorsement by these organizations.
OGC Integrated Methane Sensor Web for Emissions Management Best Practice - Part I - Fugitive Emissions Management based on AER Directive 60
Methane (CH4) is one of the most potent greenhouse gases, and the comparative impact of methane is 25 times greater than CO2 over a 100-year period . Methane is an invisible and odorless gas, and it is very labor intensive and time consuming in order to detect and repair leaks. Current methane emission management solutions are fragmented and developed without standards, ultimately leading to a complex network of incompatible sensing solutions that need to interrelate but do not. However, no single methane sensing technology can meet the accuracy, spatio-temporal resolution, and low-cost requirements. There is a need to interconnect the heterogeneous existing and emerging methane sensing technologies, ranging from satellites, drones, fixed-wing aircraft, vehicle-based systems, and continuous in-situ monitoring stations to handheld Optical Gas Imaging (OGI) devices. An effective methane emissions management solution requires an integrated methane sensor web. OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) provides the fundamental standard building blocks for the integrated methane sensor web .
Figure 1 — Examples of methane measurement platforms operating across a variety of spatial and temporal scales. (After: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine )
This OGC Best Practice (OGC BP) document defines a SensorThings API for fugitive methane emissions management. Regulations play a critical role in methane emissions reduction, and how methane emissions are detected, repaired, and managed is highly dependent on local regulations. This OGC BP is designed based on the Alberta Energy Regulator’s regulatory requirement for fugitive emissions management AER Directive 60 .
This Best Practice document provides a data model and API for the exchange of fugitive emissions observation data and the necessary metadata, both within and between different organizations. For example, it can be used for leak detection and to enable repair service providers to prepare and exchange fugitive emissions observation data with facility operators. Facility operators can also use this Best Practice to facilitate the exchange of fugitive emissions data within their organizations and with regulators.
Venting and combustion methane emissions are out of scope of this OGC Best Practice document. The development of an OGC Best Practice document for venting emissions and combustion emissions is on the roadmap.
This OGC Best Practice document is the first part of the OGC Integrated Methane Sensor Web for Emissions Management Series of Best Practice documents. The editors plan to publish a series of Best Practice documents for methane emissions management, ranging from data sources (e.g., different types of sensing systems) to data destinations (e.g., fugitive and venting emissions for regulatory reporting). The goal is to develop the building blocks for an integrated Methane Emissions Sensor Web, enabling seamless flows of observation data between various nodes: from SensorThings nodes with heterogeneous sensing sources (i.e., multiple disparate methane observation systems), to SensorThings nodes with analytics-ready data (i.e., an aggregated methane emissions datalake), and eventually to SensorThings nodes with compliance-ready data (i.e., data compliant to various regulatory organizations in different jurisdictions).
The figure below shows the roadmap of the different OGC Best Practice documents to be developed and their relationship.
Figure 2 — Integrated Methane Sensor Web Best Practice Roadmap
1.2. Design Goals
This OGC Best Practice document and its series have the following design goals:
Modularity: different parts of a methane emissions management system can be separated and reassembled, benefiting flexibility, future-proof, and variety in use;
Simplicity: the design is concise, easily testable, easy to implement, and developer-friendly;
Interoperability: whenever possible, it follows international open standards;
Scalability: it is able to grow in terms of the number of sensors, types of sensors, and volume of data without sacrificing performance.
This OGC Best Practice document defines a SensorThings API for fugitive methane emissions management based on the Alberta Energy Regulator’s regulatory requirement for fugitive emissions management AER Directive 60 (2021).
Conformance with this OGC Best Practice document shall be checked using all the relevant tests specified in Annex A (normative) of this document.
All requirements classes and conformance classes described in this document are owned by the document(s) identified.
The following table lists the requirements classes defined in this OGC Best Practice document.
NOTE The text in the Requirements class id and Requirements columns in the following table is the path fragment that, when appended to the URI: http://www.opengis.net/spec/imsw-fm-aer60/1.0, provides the URI that can be used to unambiguously identify the requirement and the conformance class.
Table 1 — List of the requirements classes defined in this OGC Best Practice document
|Requirements class id||Requirements||Description|
3. Normative references
The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.
ISO: ISO 8601:2004, Data elements and interchange formats — Information interchange — Representation of dates and times. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva (2004). https://www.iso.org/standard/40874.html
Simon Cox: OGC 10-004r3, Topic 20 — Observations and Measurements. Open Geospatial Consortium (2010). https://portal.ogc.org/files/?artifact_id=41579
Steve Liang, Tania Khalafbeigi, Hylke van der Schaaf: OGC 18-088, OGC SensorThings API Part 1: Sensing Version 1.1. Open Geospatial Consortium (2021). https://docs.ogc.org/is/18-088/18-088.html
OASIS: OData Version 4.0 Part 1: Protocol Plus Errata 02. Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (2014). https://docs.oasis-open.org/odata/odata/v4.0/errata02/os/complete/part1-protocol/odata-v4.0-errata02-os-part1-protocol-complete.html
OASIS: OData Version 4.0 Part 2: URL Conventions Plus Errata 02. Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (2014). https://docs.oasis-open.org/odata/odata/v4.0/errata02/os/complete/part2-url-conventions/odata-v4.0-errata02-os-part2-url-conventions-complete.html
OASIS: OData JSON Format Version 4.0 Plus Errata 02. Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (2014). https://docs.oasis-open.org/odata/odata-json-format/v4.0/errata02/os/odata-json-format-v4.0-errata02-os-complete.html
OASIS: OData ABNF Construction Rules Errata 02. Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (2014)
N. Freed, N. Borenstein: RFC 2046, Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types. Internet Engineering Task Force (1996). https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2046
R. Fielding, J. Gettys, J. Mogul, H. Frystyk, L. Masinter, P. Leach, T. Berners-Lee: RFC 2616, Hypertext Transfer Protocol — HTTP/1.1. Internet Engineering Task Force (1999). https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2616
H. Butler, M. Daly, A. Doyle, S. Gillies, S. Hagen, T. Schaub: RFC 7946, The GeoJSON Format. Internet Engineering Task Force (2016). https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7946
UCUM: Unified Code for Units of Measure (UCUM) – Version 1.9, April 2015
4. Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
This document uses the terms defined in OGC Policy Directive 49, which is based on the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, Rules for the structure and drafting of International Standards. In particular, the word “shall” (not “must”) is the verb form used to indicate a requirement to be strictly followed to conform to this document and OGC documents do not use the equivalent phrases in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.
This document also uses terms defined in the OGC Standard for Modular specifications (OGC 08-131r3), also known as the ‘ModSpec’. The definitions of terms such as standard, specification, requirement, and conformance test are provided in the ModSpec.
For the purposes of this document, the following additional terms and definitions apply.
4.1. Terms and definitions
4.1.1. Facility ID
A unique facility identification code, with 4 letters and 7 numbers (e.g., ABWP1234567), assigned by Petrinex to each facility (Source: AER Directive 60 ).
4.1.2. Fugitive Emissions
Unintentional releases of hydrocarbons to the atmosphere (Source: AER Directive 60 ).
4.1.3. Fugitive Emissions Screenings
Site-wide evaluations where the primary purpose is to identify fugitive emissions (e.g., from open thief hatches). These are less comprehensive than fugitive emission surveys (Source: AER Directive 60 ).
4.1.4. Fugitive Emission Surveys
Site-wide evaluations that use equipment-based methods to detect and identify sources of fugitive emissions for repair. These surveys are considered comprehensive evaluations that can assist in reducing both small volumes and large volumes of fugitive emissions (Source: AER Directive 60 ).
Canada’s Petroleum Information Network
The area defined by the boundaries of a surface lease for upstream oil and gas facilities and wells (pads counted as one lease) (Source: AER Directive 60 ).
A release of hydrocarbons from an equipment component is a leak if:
(a) the release consists of at least 500 ppmv of hydrocarbons, as determined by an inspection conducted by means of an eligible portable monitoring instrument in accordance with EPA Method 21; or
(b) the release is detected
(i) during an inspection conducted by means of an eligible optical gas-imaging instrument, or
(ii) by means of an auditory method, an olfactory method or a visual method, including the observation of the dripping of hydrocarbon liquids from the equipment component.
(Source: Government of Canada )
4.1.8. Local Regulation
The federal regulations that apply to methane in the upstream oil and gas sector aim to control methane emissions and also reduce the amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released into the air (Source: Environment and Climate Change Canada ).
4.1.9. Fugitive Emissions Management Program
A plan and supporting systems to systematically detect and manage fugitive emissions. Fugitive Emissions Management Programs are intended to complement a duty holder’s overall emissions reduction strategy (Source: AER Directive 60 ).
4.1.10. Vent Emission
The intentional controlled release of un-combusted gases directly to the atmosphere (Source: BC Oil and Gas Commission ).
4.2. Abbreviated terms
Alberta Energy Regulator
Application Programming Interface
Alberta Township Survey
Canadian Natural Resources
Environmental Protection Agency
Fugitive Emissions Management — SensorThings API
Fugitive Emissions Management Program
Global Positioning System
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
Leak Detection and Repair
Open Geospatial Consortium
Optical Gas Imaging
Sensor Web Enablement
Uniform Resource Identifier
Volatile Organic Carbon
This section provides details and examples for any conventions used in the document. Examples of conventions are symbols, abbreviations, use of XML schema, or special notes regarding how to read the document.
The normative provisions in this document are denoted by the URI
All requirements and conformance tests that appear in this document are denoted by partial URIs which are relative to this base.
6. Methane Emissions
Methane (CH4) is one of the most potent greenhouse gases, and the comparative impact of methane is 25 times greater than CO2 over a 100-year period . Global anthropogenic methane emissions by 2020 are estimated to be 9,390 million metric tons of CO2 equivalent . Approximately 50~60% of the anthropogenic methane emissions come from the following five sources: (1) agriculture (enteric fermentation-27% and manure management-3%), (2) oil and gas (24%), (3) municipal solid waste (11%), (4) coal mining (9%), and (5) wastewater (7%). Figure below shows a pie chart of the global estimated methane emissions sources in 2020.